Sinauli, a village in Uttar Pradesh(67 km from Delhi) is now drawing the attention of anthropologists, archaeologists, historians, philosophers. This little village now seems to rewrite the ancient Indian history and redefine the world history. It was all started in 2005 when the farmers in the village ploughing their fields. They found some handicrafts, beads or ornaments while ploughing. Some claim even found gold, copper etc. The news spread to the Archeological Survey of India(ASI) through local media and started to explore & excavate the site. And here comes the hidden history just buried beneath the surface.
Here are the findings
It is claimed that the culture could be dated around 3500 BCE. Copper hoards, Ochre Colored Pottery(OCP), copper channels, swords and other antiquities were found but mostly in the burial pits. So the site ASI excavating is essentially a burial site. A total of 116 burials were found. At one site of 10 burials of which 3 were females and the rest were males. Initially, the horizontal method of excavation is implemented but soon it changed to vertical excavation because of spaces and marking patterns they found. Burials are of three types
- Symbolic burials(No skeleton found)
- Primary burials(full skeleton)
- Secondary or Fragmented burial(multiple fragments/pieces of the skeleton)
ASI claims that they found all the 3 types of burials in the sinuali site. The primary investigation of burials reveal that the type of cremation the culture followed. In Rigveda, the Purusha Sukta means they make the body fall in asleep position along with some other materials like ghee and bury them. Also, the other ritual method Sruatra which means fire cremation both were found in the sinauli site. The site was well preserved and coffins too. It was very astonishing that the good perseverance of coffins without decaying some 4000 years. The coffin is made of wood and moulded with copper from external exposure. The culture was well versed with the usage of copper. The female coffin has an enclave of steatite (soapstone or metallic talc) and a male coffin with copper sheathing. The coffins were well designed with geometric designs and patterns.
The measure of bricks found in the sinauli site is (7*30*50) centimetres. while the Harappan bricks are of size (5*10*20) centimetres which distinguishes the different types of culture and civilization. However, there are many contradictory statements. One such is, the sinuali falls under the Ganga Yamuna doab which might indicate the sinuali people could be late Harappans. But it lacks an absolute evidence. In one of the burial swords, antennas, copper channels found. However, it is well known that the ancient people were buried along with their belongings. The sword does have a hilt which is used to hold and it was wrapped with copper. Further, the sword was casted with midrib which is seen in Mesopotamia and not in the Harappa. And the copper channels might indicate their clan.
The average height of male sinuali was 5.10 feet and female was 5.06 feet. In one female burial golden bangles, beads, various jewellery, swords, arrowheads, bow and most expensive items are found that she might be the princess. Also, jewellery made of Faience i.e. is a complex process which means a refractory material or ceramic material produced from quartz. The findings of swords in female burials indicate there were women fighters or warriors too in the sinuali culture. Also, shiels or armours too found in burials. The female shields are made of steatite layings and the male shields are copper coated.
The most astonishing comes in one of the male burials with 2 chariots, 2sticks,2 channels, weapons and many more. He is believed to be a chieftain or a member of the royal family. That’s apart from the, the most valuable finding is the chariot. This legendary item and this burial could rewrite Indian history. Because this the first-ever chariot to be discovered in India. The technology used indicates the craftsmanship of the sinaulis. It cloud accommodate one or two max. The wheels were copper coated with triangular designs in three-layer layers that resemble the radiating sun. The chariot was dated to 2100-1900 BCE. Also, the chariot is crafted as mentioned in Vedas. However, the question remains what pulled the chariot? The claim of the horse is not yet confirmed. It was theorized that the horse did come to the Indian subcontinent from the west or by through Aryan invasions. But the primary signature of DNA samples suggests that that horse did exist as early as 2500 BCE. This particular burial is different from other ones. The surface of the coffin was designed with some markings. If it is to open this could reveal the mind-blowing facts of Indian history and the mystery of sinualis.
Apart from all these findings, the cultural identity of sinualis is also unknown. A lot more exploration has to be done in and around sinuali to know more. However, apart from this particular site, the ASI has not conducted any other excavation in sinuali. It is believed that the Indian civilization was earlier than Mesopotamia but misrepresented due to western theories and hegemony.